What is Bronchial Asthma?
Asthma is one of the most common diseases in the world. About 300 million people from all over the world have asthma and a large number of patients are increasing each year. It causes about four thousand deaths each year in the United States. People from all ages including children have asthma and about 6.5 million American children and teenager below the age of 18 have asthma.
The general term asthma is actually the bronchial asthma which is caused by the narrowing the airways. Asthma can be predisposition or chronic inflammation in the lungs. The attack of asthma is an episodic attack with the symptoms of coughing, chest pressure, wheezing and most painful one: the shortness of breath. There is not confirming treatment for asthma if it grows into the highest level of severity, although it can be controlled by using inhalers and preventing other triggers that causes the rapid increase of asthma. Most of the time, asthma is a chronic diseases; if it remain untreated. The most common reason for asthma is the genetically carriers along with other factors. Some of the allergies also have a connection with the diseases.
Types of asthma
Asthma is classified according to the severity of the attack. The four major types include intermittent, mild persistent, moderate persistent and severe persistent. The frequency of the intermittent asthma is only once in one or two weeks where the severe persistent can have more than once a day. The rate of night time attack of the symptom is also far greater for the severe persistent than the intermittent.
There are mainly two types of asthma based on the life time and they are chronic attack and acute state. The chronic state is very common if the patient do not use any medication within a short time of the attack. The symptoms are also different for these two types.
Bronchial asthma symptoms
Asthma has fewer but very painful and serious symptoms. These symptoms are not in a great degree in the mild attack, but can be very grave for the severe stage. The most common symptoms of asthma are: cough, tightness and pressure in the chest, short in breathness and wheeze. In the serious level, the patient will have difficulty to speak. During an asthma attack, the pulse rate is usually increases and it can reach up to 120 pulses per minute in case of severe attack. The symptoms comes periodically and the rate of depends on the degree of the attack. Sometimes, the patients might not show any sign of asthma between the gaps. The acute exacerbation shows the symptoms of wheezing, chest tightness and shortness of breath. Sometimes, there might be coughing in the primary stage.
A rapid heart rate and rhonchous lung sound can be heard through stethoscope during a physical examination of a serious patient of asthma. The symptoms are usually shown in case of the presence of a trigger if the level of the dieses is minimum, but a severe persistent level may not need a trigger to start the signs. The patient might turn into blue color during a serious attack for the lack of oxygen. If it gets more serious, he might lose consciousness. In such case, numbness and sweat in the palms are very common. Among the other symptoms at that time, the feet of the victim might feel cold. This kind of attack might leads to death and need immediate medical treatment.
Causes of bronchial asthma
The mast cell, T lymphocyte and eosinophils are closely related with asthma. The mast cells are mainly the victim of allergy causing molds, chemical and cells. They are easily infected by histamine like chemicals and that is one of the most common causes for nasal stuffiness as well as dripping nose and high fever. These symptoms lead to shortness of breath and finally asthma. The eosinophil is an allergic diseases causing white blood cell. The T lymphocytes are related with allergy and inflammation and thus asthma. These inflammatory cells influence the airway inflammation and cause chronic disease, airflow limitation, respiratory symptoms, and hyper responsiveness. The symptoms like chest tightness and breathlessness can be felt during the night time and might came in sleeping. In that case the patient will have a serious attack of coughing. Some of the times, the attack might come right after awaking in the early morning. For the patients who do not have so serious level of asthma may face the problems during and after exercise. For this reason, the asthma patients are strongly suggested to ask suggestion from the doctor for any short of exercise.
Beside the physical causes there are some other major factors that have crucial effect on asthma. Among them, the most important one is the gene. There are several genes that are directly related with asthma and in almost every case; they are passed through the generation. Also there are some environmental facts that affect the cause and severity of asthma.
Allergies have a very close relation with bronchial asthma and it is very common to find an allergenic patient grow asthma after a few years of suffering from allergy. The combination of asthma and allergy is very severe for the patient as well as the allergy may lead an ordinary asthma into a severe persistent asthma. Among the major triggers of bronchial asthma, there are infections, tobacco smoking, exercise, allergenic food and other triggers, air pollutions, toxins, chemical, weather, sudden change of temperature, dust, drugs, anxiety and mental stress etc.
Conclusion: Asthma is chronic disease that needs constant medical care to control its severity. The patient must always follow the instructions of the doctor accordingly.